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Cold Turkey: Slang term for the abrupt and complete cessation in intake of an addictive substance. It stems from the appearance of goosebumps on the skin often observable in addicted individuals when physiologically withdrawing from a substance.

Deterrence: Deterrence is the use of punishment as a threat to deter people from committing offences. Often contrasted with retributivism, which holds that punishment is a necessary consequence of a crime and should be calculated based on the gravity of the wrong done. A foundational concept of the United States “war on drugs.”

Disease Model of Addiction: The disease model of addiction classifies addiction as a disease. There are several “disease models,” but addiction is widely considered a complex disease with biological, neurobiological, genetic, and environmental influences among clinical scientists.

Drug addiction: The preferred term is substance use disorder. When referring to opioids, see the Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) as it is less stigmatizing and acknowledges the biopsychosocial disorder as a medical condition that is treatable and from which people do recovery.

Drug Dream: Reoccurring dreams that occur during the recovery process from substance use disorder that concern depictions of substance use, often vivid in nature, and frequently involving a relapse scenario. These dreams decrease in frequency with time in recovery from substance use disorder.

Drug misuse: Drug misuse is the use of illegal drugs and/or the use of prescription drugs in a manner other than as directed by a doctor, such as use in greater amounts, more often, or longer than told to take a drug or using someone else’s prescription.

Drug or Recovery Courts: Drug courts are problem-solving courts that operate under a specialized model in which the judiciary, prosecution, defense bar, probation, law enforcement, mental health, social service, and treatment communities work together to help non-violent offenders find restoration in recovery and become productive citizens.

Evidence Based Practice: Patient care informed through the integration of clinical expertise and best available clinical evidence from systematic research.

Extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids: Extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids are lower-acting medication with a longer duration of pain-relieving action.

Fentanyl: Pharmaceutical fentanyl is a synthetic opioid, approved for treating severe pain, typically advanced cancer pain. It is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine. However, illegally made fentanyl is sold through illicit drug markets for its heroin-like effect, and it is often mixed with heroin or other drugs, such as cocaine, or pressed into counterfeit prescription pills.